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洪銀興: 中國共產黨領導建設新中國的經濟發展思想演進

發布時間: 2021-04-06

研究背景

       cong2010nianqiwoguozuoweifazhanzhongdaguoyiyuechengweishijiedierdajingjiti,youqishizaixinguanbingdusinvequanqiuzhishi,zhongguobudanyouxiaokongzhilebingduchuanbo,erqiezai2020nianshijiejingjishouciyingxiangquanmianshuaituishi,zhongguoshiweiyibaochijingjizhengzengchangdezhuyaojingjiti。zhongguojingjideqijikeguijieweijingjifazhandezhongguodaoludechenggong,biaomingbuzouxifangguojiadefazhandaolu,bucaiyongxifangjingjimoshi,zouzhongguoteseshehuizhuyifazhandaolu,tongyangnengqudejingjishangdechenggong。zaiqingzhuzhongguogongchandangjiandang100zhounianzhiji,yanjiuxinzhongguodangdejingjifazhansixiangsuizhushidaidejinbueryanjindejiannanlicheng,bujinkeyifaxianxijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyijingjisixiangchanshengdeyuanyuan,erqiekeyishenkelijiejinruxinshidaihou,xijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyijingjisixiangzhongbaohandejingjifazhandexinsixiangduixinshidaidezhongguonaizhishijiedezhongdagongxian。

 

 

jibenguandian

       yi、shehuizhuyaomaoduntichudezhongdafazhanrenwu

       zaixinzhongguochenglizhichujianlidexinminzhuzhuyishehuidejingjirenwushi: fazhanxinminzhuzhuyijingji,wenbudibiannongyeguoweigongyeguo;fazhangongnongyeshengchan,cujinjingjifanrong;duozhongjingjichengfenfengonghezuo,gedeqisuo,yicujinzhenggeshehuijingjidefazhan。dao1952niandi,guominjingjijibenhuifu,dangzhongyangjiutichuwoguojinruxiangshehuizhuyishehuiguodudeshiqi,kaishileguojiagongyehuaheshehuizhuyigaizaodejincheng。zaizhegejieduanfucongyushehuizhuyigaizao,jianlishehuizhuyijingjizhidudezhongxinrenwu,shehuizhuyaomaodunhaowuyiwenshishehuizhuyitongzibenzhuyidemaodun,gongrenjiejihezichanjiejidejiejidouzhengchengweidangshidezhuyaorenwu。dao1956nian,shehuizhuyigaizaorenwujibenwancheng,zaijiashangyiguojiagongyehuaweizhuyaoneirongde“yiwu”jihuashengliwancheng,dulidegongyetixiyejibenjianli。dangran,zaidangshidangzhongyangguogaodigujileshehuizhuyigaizaodexingshi,jiasuleshehuizhuyigaizaodebufa,fanleyaoqiuguoji、gongzuoguocu、gaibianguokuaidecuowu,yizhizaiguoduanshijianneiwanchengshehuizhuyigaizao,yiliuleyixieyouchangqixiaojiyingxiangdewenti。

       1956nian9yuezhaokaidedangdebadajiyuduidangshixingshidezhengquefenximingquetichu: shehuizhuyizhiduzaiwoguoyijingjibenshangjianliqilai;guoneizhuyaomaodunyijingbuzaishigongrenjiejihezichanjiejidemaodun,ershixianjindeshehuizhuyizhidutongluohoudeshehuishengchanlizhijiandemaodun,shirenminduiyujingji、wenhuaxunsufazhandexuyaotongdangqianjingji、wenhuabunengmanzurenminxuyaodezhuangkuangzhijiandemaodun;quanguorenmindezhuyaorenwushijizhongliliangfazhanshehuishengchanli。zaibadaluxiandezhiyinxia,1956nianhe1957nianshixinzhongguochengliyilaijingjifazhanzuihaodenianfenzhiyi。dangdebadaguanyuwoguozhuyaomaodunhezhuyaorenwudebiaoshuzaidangdejingjisixiangshishangjuyoukaichuangxingyiyi。

       kexideshibadaguanyushehuizhuyaomaodundezhengquepanduanmeiyoudedaojianchiheguanche。1958nian5yuezhaokaidedangdebajieerzhongquanhuizhengshitongguole“guzuganjing、lizhengshangyou、duokuaihaoshengdijiansheshehuizhuyi”dezongluxian,bingqiezhengshigaibianlebadaguanyuguoneizhuyaomaodunyijingzhuanbiandezhengquefenxi,renweidangqianwoguoshehuidezhuyaomaodunrengranshiwuchanjiejitongzichanjieji、shehuizhuyidaolutongzibenzhuyidaoludemaodun。1962nianzhaokaidebajieshizhongquanhuijinyibuzhichu,zaiwuchanjiejigeminghewuchanjiejizhuanzhengdezhenggelishishiqi,zaiyouzibenzhuyiguodudaogongchanzhuyidezhenggelishishiqi(zhegeshiqixuyaojishinian,shenzhigengduodeshijian)cunzaizhuwuchanjiejihezichanjiejizhijiandejiejidouzheng,cunzaizhushehuizhuyihezibenzhuyizheliangtiaodaoludedouzheng。zaizhexieqingkuangxia,jiejidouzhengshibukebimiande。zheyang,“bada”luxianyoubei“yijiejidouzhengweigang”de“zuo”decuowuluxiansuochediqudai,jiejidouzhengheliangtiaodaoludouzhengbeishiweijiasujingjifazhandedongli,fazhanshengchanlibeiqujieweiwuxiuzhidizhuiqiushengchanguanxishengjidebuduangeming,congershidangdegongzuozhongxinrengjiufangzaizhengzhiyundonghejiejidouzhengshang。youqishi1966nian5yuekaishidechixushinianzhijiude“wenhuadageming”,qiangdiaozhuagemingcushengchan,wuxiuzhidegaojiejidouzheng,zhishiguominjingjibinyubengkui。

       1978nianzhaokaidedangdeshiyijiesanzhongquanhuiyiranbingqile“yijiejidouzhengweigang”decuowufangzhen,zhenzhengkaishilebadangheguojiadegongzuozhuanxiangyijingjijiansheweizhongxin。1981nian6yue,shiyijieliuzhongquanhuitongguode《guanyujianguoyilaidangderuoganlishiwentidejueyi》diyicimingquezhichu“woguodeshehuizhuyizhiduhuanshichuyuchujidejieduan”。1987nian10yuezhaokaidedangdeshisandaxitongdichanshuleshehuizhuyichujijieduanlilun。shehuizhuyichujijieduan,bushifanzhirenheguojiajinrushehuizhuyidouhuijinglideqishijieduan,ershitezhiwoguozaishengchanliluohou、shangpinjingjibufadatiaojianxiajiansheshehuizhuyibiranyaojinglidetedingjieduan。duishehuizhuyaomaodundebiaoshu,dangdeshiyijieliuzhongquanhuishangmingquezhichu: zaishehuizhuyichujijieduan,woguoshehuidezhuyaomaodunshirenminriyizengchangdewuzhiwenhuaxuyaotongluohoudeshehuishengchanzhijiandemaodun。zhegezhuyaomaodunguanchuanyuwoguoshehuizhuyichujijieduandezhenggeguochengheshehuishenghuodegegefangmian,juedinglezhegejieduandegenbenrenwushijizhongliliangfazhanshehuishengchanli。

       jiyushehuizhuyichujijieduanshehuizhuyaomaodundekexuepanduan,dengxiaopingduishehuizhuyichujijieduandegenbenrenwutichule3gefangmiandezhongyaosixiang。yishishehuizhuyidebenzhishijiefanghefazhanshengchanli。dengxiaopingqiangdiaobunengzhijiangfazhanshengchanli,yinggaibajiefangshengchanlihefazhanshengchanlilianggejiangquanle。dengxiaopingdeshehuizhuyibenzhihefazhanjieduanlilun,jishiduimakesizhuyikexueshehuizhuyidehuigui,youshikexueshehuizhuyililundefazhanyuchuangxin。ershi1992nianzainanfangjianghuazhongtichu“fazhancaishiyingdaoli“dekexuelunduan。tongshitichu“sangeyouliyu”depingjiabiaozhun,ji“shifouyouliyufazhanshehuizhuyishehuideshengchanli,shifouyouliyuzengqiangshehuizhuyiguojiadezongheguoli,shifouyouliyutigaorenmindeshenghuoshuiping”。sanshigenjushehuizhuyichujijieduandeshehuizhuyijiushifazhanshengchanliderenwu,yaoqiuzaijianchishehuizhuyijibenzhidudeqiantixiacaiqugezhongyouliyushengchanlifazhandefangshi,baokuoliyongduozhongsuoyouzhi,liyongshichangjingji,liyongyaosubaochoudeng,chuangxinchongmanhuolifuyouxiaolvdetizhijizhi。suoyouzhexiedoushizhongguoteseshehuizhuyidejutitixian。zongdelaishuo,yijushehuizhuyichujijieduanzhuyaomaodundekexuepanduan,fazhanchengweiyingdaoli,jingjijianshechengweizhongxin,shichanghuaquxiangdegaigeyinlingwoguoshixianle30duoniannianjunjin10%degaosuzengchang。

       jinruxinshidai,youyugaigekaifangdetuidong,shehuishengchanlishuipingmingxiantigao,woguogaobiedishourujieduan,jinrulezhongdengshourujieduan。xijinpingzongshujizaishijiudabaogaozhongzhichu: “zhongguoteseshehuizhuyijinruxinshidai,woguoshehuizhuyaomaodunyijingzhuanhuaweirenminriyizengchangdemeihaoshenghuoxuyaohebupinghengbuchongfendefazhanzhijiandemaodun。”qiyijushi,zairenminxuyaofangmian,woguowendingjiejueleshijiyirendewenbaowenti,bingjiangquanmianjianchengxiaokangshehui,renminmeihaoshenghuoxuyaoriyiguangfan,bujinduiwuzhiwenhuashenghuotichulegenggaoyaoqiu,erqiezaiminzhu、fazhi、gongping、zhengyi、anquan、huanjingdengfangmiandeyaoqiuriyizengchang。zaishehuishengchanlifangmian,woguoshehuishengchanlishuipingzongtishangxianzhutigao,shehuishengchannenglizaihenduofangmianjinrushijieqianlie。

       shehuizhuyaomaodundezhuanhuabiaoming: diyi,fazhanmubiaoshimanzurenminriyizengchangdemeihaoshenghuoxuyao,tixianyirenminweizhongxindefazhanguan。dier,maodundezhuyaofangmianshifazhandebupinghenghebuchongfen。suoweifazhandebuchongfen,zuiweituchudeshiyouchuangxinnenglibuzuchanshengdehexinjishugonggeibuchongfen,yougonggeitixizhiliangbugaochanshengdeyouxiaogonggeibuzu。suoweifazhandebupingheng,shejishengtaihuanjingbukanzhongfudeduanban,nongyexiandaihuadeduanban、diqufazhanbupinghengdeduanbandengdeng。disan,woguoshehuizhuyaomaodundebianhua,meiyougaibianduiwoguoshehuizhuyisuochulishijieduandepanduan。woguorengranchuyubingjiangchangqichuyushehuizhuyichujijieduan,woguoshifazhanzhongdaguodediweimeiyougaibian。zhishibiaomingwoguojinruleshehuizhuyichujijieduandexinjieduan。xuyaojiejuexinjieduandexinmaodun。

       jiyuxinshidaishehuizhuyaomaodundekexuepanduan,xijinpingtichufazhanshizhizhengxingguodediyiyaowudelunduan。zhejiushixijinpingqiangdiaode: “yijingjijiansheweizhongxinshixingguozhiyao,fazhanshidangzhizhengxingguodediyiyaowu,shijiejuewoguoyiqiewentidejichuheguanjian。”xiangbifazhanshiyingdaoli,zuoweidiyiyaowudefazhanyoutebiedeyaoqiu,jiushixijinpingshuode: “fazhanshiyingdaolidezhanlvesixiangyaojiandingbuyi,tongshibixujianchikexuefazhan,jiadajiegouxinggaigelidu,jianchiyitigaofazhanzhilianghexiaoyiweizhongxin,shixiangenggaozhiliang、gengyouxiaolv、gengjiagongping、gengkechixudefazhan”。xinshidaifazhandezhulidianshijiejuebunengmanzurenminmeihaoshenghuoxuyaodefazhandebupinghengbuchongfenwenti。

 

       er、fazhanlinianjixiangyingdejingjifazhanfangshizhuanbian

       xinzhongguojianguozhichu,jingguo3niandeguominjingjihuifu,yu1953niankaishishishifazhanguominjingjidediyigewunianjihua(1953~1957nian)。zheshixinzhongguozhidingdediyigeyoujihuakaizhanguojiajingjijianshe、tuijinguojiagongyehuadehongweijihua。dangshibaifeidaixing,mianduiyiqiongerbaideluohoudenongyedaguodejingjijichu,yiwujihuashiqidejingjifazhanjibenshangshipuxintanzi,yisulianyuanjiande156xiangxiangmuweizhongxin,suiranshuyuwaiyanxingkuodazaishengchan,danbijingshicongwudaoyoujianlixiandaigongye。zheshizhongguorenminzhanqilaideguanjianjucuo。jingguoquandang、quanguorenmindenuli,dao1957nian,diyigewunianjihuashenglishixian,xuduozhibiaochaoewanchenglerenwu,gangtie、meitan、dianli、shiyou、huagong、jungongdengzhongyaogongyechanpindadaolesulianheriben30niandaideshuiping,gengyuanchaojiuzhongguo,bingkaishilexiangruoganjianduanlingyudemaijin,weishixianguojiagongyehuadaxialechubujichu,qiangjianleyizhanliqilaidezhongguorenmindejingu。zhongguogongchandangrengengzaizheyichangweidashijianzhong,renzhenxuexi、zhangwolexuduolingdaoxiandaihuajianshedezhishi,fengfulezishendejingjijianshedesixianghelilun。

       maozedong1956nian4yuefabiaode《lunshidaguanxi》,zaichubuzongjiewoguoshehuizhuyijianshejingyandejichushang,chuixiangletansuoshihewoguoguoqingdeshehuizhuyijianshedaoludehaojiao。《lunshidaguanxi》zhongyujingjizhijiexiangguandeyou5ge,ji: zhonggongyeheqinggongye、nongyedeguanxi;yanhaigongyeheneidigongyedeguanxi;jingjijiansheheguofangjianshedeguanxi;guojiashengchandanweiheshengchanzhegerendeguanxi;zhongyanghedifangdeguanxideng。gaiwenshijishangshizhenduisulianchangqiyouxianfazhanzhonggongye,danchunzhuiqiusududejingjifazhanfangshitichubutongdelinian,qiangdiaobumenzhijian、diquzhijianxiediaofazhanhetongchoujiangugefangmianliyiguanxi,shituzaizhongguokaipiyitiaotongsuliandaoluyousuobutongdeshehuizhuyigongyehuadaolu。

       “yiwu”jihuadechenggong,sandagaizaodejibenwancheng,cushidangdelingdaocengguofenxiangxinzhuguannengdongxing,yijizaijingjishang“chaoyingganmei”dejuexin。badahoubujiu,fanlezhidaosixiangshang“zuo”decuowu,zai1958nianqinglvdifadongle“dayuejin”henongcunrenmingongshehuayundong,jingjigongzuochuxianlebuzunzhongjingjiguilv,zhuiqiugaozhibiao、xiazhihui、guafukuafenghe“gongchanfeng”。zuizhongshoudaojingjiguilvdechengfa,geijingjizaochenglezhongdasunshi。zaijiashangsannianziranzaihai,yijisulianhuiyue、chezouzhuanjia,zaochengleguominjingjideyanzhongkunnan。

       1960niandong,dangzhongyangjuedingduiguominjingjishixing“diaozheng、gonggu、chongshi、tigao”defangzhen。zhendui“dayuejin”shiqiguagongchanfeng、fourenshangpinhuobiguanxideng“zuo”qingsixiangjiqichanshengdehouguo,zaimaozedongdechangdaoxia,zhongyanglingdaotongzhixuexisidalinde《sulianshehuizhuyijingjiwenti》hesulian《zhengzhijingjixue》jiaokeshushehuizhuyibufen,zaicijichushangsikaozhongguodejingjijianshedaolu,tichulebujinduidangshierqieduizhongguodechangyuanfazhandouqizhongyaoyingxiangdejingjisixiang。shouxianshizhongshiduishehuizhuyijingjiguilvdeyanjiu,qiangdiaojiazhiguilvdezuoyong。qicishitichuleguominjingjizonghepinghengdesixiang。tichuyinongyeweijichu,yigongyeweizhudaodesixiang,jiansheguimobixutongguolixiangshiying,renminshenghuoheguojiajianshebixujiangu,zhidingjihuabixuzuohaowuzi、caizheng、xindaizonghepinghengdeguandian。disanshimengfagaigejingjitizhidesixiang。zhejigefangmianzaidangshishijishangshejijingjizengchangfangshidediaozheng,suiranhuanzhishijuxianzaisuduhebiliguanxidediaozhengshang。qixiaoyingshiguominjingjicong1962niandao1966niandedaolebijiaoshunlidehuifuhefazhan。kexideshi“wengeshinian”,“zuo”dezhidaosixiangdaduanlezhongguojingjizhengchangfazhan,zhishixuduojingjilingyuchuyubengkuidebianyuan。

       zhongguodegaigekaifangchuqigengweizhongshitongguogaigelaijiefangshengchanli。yikaogaigejifaqiyehuoliheyaosutouru,zaizengchangfangshishangtuchuyige“kuai”zi。jingjifazhansudumingxianjiakuai,chengshihua、gongyehuaqudemingxianjinzhan,renminshourushuipingmingxiantigao。yucitongshichanshenglehuanjingwuran、shouruchajuguofenkuoda,diquhebumenzhijianfazhanbupinghengdengwenti。dangzhongyangjishifaxianzengchangbudengyufazhan,zhishikaoshichanghuagaigebunengwanquanjiejuefazhanwenti,zengchangdezhilianghexiaoyiwentishejizengchangfangshiwenti。1995niandangdeshisijiewuzhongquanhuimingquetichushixinglianggegenbenxingzhuanbiandeyaoqiu: yishijingjitizhicongchuantongdejihuajingjitizhixiangshehuizhuyishichangjingjitizhizhuanbian,ershijingjizengchangfangshicongcufangxingxiangjiyuexingzhuanbian。zheshiwomendangdiyicitichuzengchangfangshizhuanbianwenti。ziciyihou,zhuanbianjingjizengchangfangshiwentishoudaolegefangmiandeguanzhu。2002niandangdeshiliudatichuxinxinggongyehuadaolu,jiyixinxihuadaidonggongyehua,yigongyehuacujinxinxihua,zouchuyitiaokejihanlianggao,jingjixiaoyihao,ziyuanxiaohaodi,huanjingwuranshao,renliziyuanyoushidedaochongfenfahuidegongyehuadaolu.zheshizhuanbianjingjizengchangfangshidetixian。

       duizhuanbianzengchangfangshidesikaobiranyaoshangshengdaofazhanguandezhuanbian。2003niandangdeshiliujiesanzhongquanhuitichu,jianchiyirenweiben,shuliquanmian、xiediao、kechixudefazhanguan,cujinjingjishehuiherendequanmianfazhan。zheshidangzhongyangshoucimingquetichufazhanguandegainian。2007niandangdeshiqidaduikexuefazhanguanzuolemingquedegaikuo: “kexuefazhanguan,diyiyaoyishifazhan,hexinshiyirenweiben,jibenyaoqiushiquanmianxiediaokechixu,genbenfangfashitongchoujiangu”。genjukexuefazhanguan,dangdeshiqidabaogaojiangzhuanbianjingjizengchangfangshigaiweizhuanbianjingjifazhanfangshi,qiangdiaozou“shengchanfazhan,shenghuofuyu,shengtailianghao”dewenmingfazhandaolu。shiqijiewuzhongquanhuiguanyu“shierwu”guihuadejianyijinyibumingquelezhuanbianjingjifazhanfangshideneihan。yishijiangjingjijiegouzhanlvexingdiaozhengzuoweizhugongfangxiang,ershijiangkejijinbuhechuangxinzuoweizhongyaozhicheng,sanshijiangbaozhanghegaishanminshengzuoweigenbenchufadianheluojiaodian,sishijiangjiansheziyuanjieyuexing、huanjingyouhaoxingshehuizuoweizhongyaozhulidian。zaijingjifazhandeshijianzhongyou“kuai”zidangtouzhuanbianwei“hao”zidangtou,tuchuyouhaoyoukuai,tuchufazhandezhilianghexiaoyi,tuchubaohushengtaihehuanjing,tuchurenminfenxiangfazhanchengguo,tuchukechixufazhan。fazhanxiaoguoshimingxiande。dao2010nianwoguodejingjizongliangdadaoshijiedier,2012nianrenjungdpda6338meiyuan,jinruzhongdengshouruguojiaxinglie。

       jinruxinshidaihou,zhichi30duoniangaosuzengchangdezengchangyaosuyijingdedaolechongfenshifang,qianzaijingjizengchanglvchuxianlexiajiangdequshi,zhuyaobiaoxianshi: suizhunongyeshengyulaodonglizhuanyifangman,shengyulaodonglizhichidedichengbenlaodongligonggeimingxianjianshao。suizhurenkouhonglimingxianjianshao,laolinghuashehuiyesuizhidaolai,zhichigaotouzidegaochuxubukechixu。suizhuwuzhiyaosugonggeidebukechixu,nengyuan、ziyuan、huanjingdepingjingyueshuzhengzaichengweizengchangdeziranjiexian。zaicibeijingxia,chixu30duoniandegaosuzengchangbukechixu,zhuanxiangzhonggaosuzengchangbukebimian。zhezhongzhuangkuangbeixijinpingchengweijingjixinchangtai。jiyujingjixinchangtaijijinruxinshidaihoudefazhanrenwu,xijinpingzaidangdeshibajiewuzhongquanhuitichulechuangxin、xiediao、lvse、kaifang、gongxiangdexinfazhanlinian。xinfazhanlinianguidingleyougaosuzengchangzhuanxianggaozhiliangfazhandehexinneirong。

       diyi,chuangxinshigaozhiliangfazhandediyidongli。zhongguojinruxinshidaideyigezhongyaobiaozhijiushicongyaosuqudong、touziqudongzhuanxiangchuangxinqudong。zuoweiqudonglidechuangxinbaohanduofangmian,qihexinshikejichuangxin。kejichuangxindezhulidianshichuangxinchuyuguojiqianyandehexinjishu。hexinjishushiguozhizhongqi。jixuyaoyiyanfahexingaoxinjishuweidaoxiangdejichuyanjiu,yexuyaotuidongzhanlingchanyezhigaodiandechanyechuangxin。jiangkejichuangxinyuchanyechuangxinronghe,jianliyouliyuchuangxinchengguochanyehuadejizhihetongdao。

       dier,xiediaoshigaozhiliangfazhandexingtai。xijinpingzhichu: “xiediaojishifazhanshouduanyoushifazhanmubiao,tongshihuanshipingjiafazhandebiaozhunhechidu,zaibiru,xiediaoshifazhanliangdianlunhezhongdianlundetongyi。”xiediaoshijingjichixujiankangfazhandeneizaiyaoqiu。xiediaodezhongyaoxingzaiyuyouxiaojiejuefazhandebupinghengwenti。

       disan,lvseshigaozhiliangfazhandeneizaiyaoqiu。renyuziranhexiegongshengshishengtaiwenmingshidairenminduimeihaoshenghuodezhuiqiu。zaishengtaiwenmingdeshidai, “lvshuiqingshanjiushijinshanyinshan”。ganjingdeshui、qingxindekongqi、duoyangxingdeshengwu、lvsedehuanjingshibaoguideshengtaicaifu。jingjifazhanbujinyaomouqiuwuzhicaifu,huanyaomouqiushengtaicaifu。baohushengtaihuanjingjiushibaohushengchanli、gaishanshengtaihuanjingjiushifazhanshengchanli。

       disi,kaifangshigaozhiliangfazhandeneiwailiandongfazhandejizhi。gaigekaifangchuqiduiwaikaifangliyongguojiguoneilianggeziyuanlianggeshichanghuodelequanqiuhuadehongli。xinshidaidekaifangfazhanjiushiyaogenjuxijinpingjianlirenleimingyungongtongtidesixiang,jianligaozhiliangdekaifangxingjingjitixi,zaigengdafanwei、gengkuanlingyu、gengshencengcishangtigaokaifangxingjingjishuiping。

       diwu,gongxiangshigaozhiliangfazhandegenbenmude。xijinpingtichudegongxiangfazhandelinianjiushi: “bixujianchifazhanweilerenmin、fazhanyikaorenmin、fazhanchengguoyourenmingongxiang,zuochugengyouxiaodezhiduanpai,shiquantirenminzaigongjiangongxiangfazhanzhongyougengduohuodegan。”quanmingongxiangshimubiao。quanmiangongxiangshineirong,gongjiangongxiangshijichu,jianjingongxiangshitujing。gongxiangfazhan,shouxianshifazhan,jijuquanminzhilibuduanba“dangao”zuoda。qicishibabuduanzuodade“dangao”fenhao,rangshehuizhuyizhidudeyouyuexingdedaogengchongfendetixian,rangrenminqunzhongyougengduohuodegan(hongyinxing,2018)。

       genjuxinfazhanlinian,conggaosuzengchangzhuanxianggaozhiliangfazhan,qiangdiaodeshijingjixiaoyi、shehuixiaoyiheshengtaixiaoyidejiehe,tixiandeshirenyujingjishehuiziranxiangxiediaodeyizhongbaorongxingdezengchang,shimanzurenminmeihaoshenghuoxuyaodefazhan,shirenyuziranhexiegongshengdefazhan。

 

       san、shehuizhuyixiandaihuademubiaohejibenlujing

       xiandaihuashizhongguorendebainianmengxiang。xinzhongguochengliyihoulijiezhongyanglingdaojitidoubashixianshehuizhuyixiandaihuazuoweifazhanmubiao。duixiandaihuadeneihanzaibutongdefazhanjieduanyoubutongdebiaoshu。

       1954nian9yue,zhouenlaizaiyijiequanguorendadiyicihuiyi《zhengfugongzuobaogao》zhongshoucitichu“sigexiandaihua”: “woguodejingjiyuanlaishihenluohoude。ruguowomenbujiansheqiqiangdadexiandaihuadegongye、xiandaihuadenongye、xiandaihuadejiaotongyunshuyehexiandaihuadeguofang,womenjiubunengbaituoluohouhepinqiong,womendegemingjiubunengdadaomude”。1956niandangdebadatongguodedangzhangyoubazhe“sigexiandaihua”xiejinlezonggang。zhouenlai1963nian1yuezaishanghaitichu: “womenyaoshixiannongyexiandaihua、gongyexiandaihua、guofangxiandaihua、kexuejishuxiandaihua,jiancheng‘sigexiandaihua’。bawoguojianshechengweiyigeshehuizhuyiqiangguo,guanjianzaiyushixiankexuejishuxiandaihua。”1975nian1yue,zhouenlaizaisijiequanguorendayicihuiyi《zhengfugongzuobaogao》zhong,zaicifachu“zaibenshijinei,quanmianshixiannongye、gongye、guofanghekexuejishudexiandaihua,shiwoguoguominjingjizouzaishijiedeqianlie”dehaozhao。woguode“sigexiandaihua”detifajiuyizhiyanxuzhijin。yihandeshi,youyuchangqidejiejidouzheng,dangdegongzuozhongxinyizhimeiyounenggouzhuandaojingjijianshe,xiandaihuameiyouchengweixingdong。zhizhigaigekaifangkaishishizhongguojingjifazhanshuipingzaishijieshangrengranchuyudishouruguojiashuiping。jiuru1979niandengxiaopingsuoshuo: “xianzaizhongguorengranshishijieshanghenpinqiongdeguojiazhiyi”;zhongguode“kexuejishushuipingcongzongtishangkanyaobishijiexianjinguojialuohouersanshinian”。

       gaigekaifangkaishiyihou,xiandaihuabujinyoumubiaozhuanweixingdong,erqieyoulejutibushu。1987niandengxiaopingcongwoguorenkouduo、dizibodeguoqingchufa,shejilefen“sanbuzou”shixianxiandaihuadehongweilantu: diyibu,cong1981niandao1990nianguominshengchanzongzhifanyifan,jiejuerenmindewenbaowenti;dierbu,cong1991niandao20shijimoshiguominshengchanzongzhizaizengchangyibei,renminshenghuodadaoxiaokangshuiping;disanbu,dao21shijizhongxierenjunguominshengchanzongzhidadaozhongdengfadaguojiashuiping,renminshenghuobijiaofuyu,jibenshixianxiandaihua。ranhou,zaizhegejichushangjixuqianjin。dengxiaopingyong“wenbao”、“xiaokang”、“fuyu”zuoweijingjifazhandesanbuzhanlvemubiao,shirenminnenggoushengdongdi、zhiguandirenshiheqieshenganshoudaozhegemubiaodeshixianguocheng。2002niandangdeshiliudabaogaomingquetichubenshijizhongxiejibenshixianxiandaihua,qizhongtou20nianquanmianjianshehuijishijiyirenkoudequanmianxiaokangshehui。jiangquanmianxiaokangshehuijianshebaohanzaixiandaihuadejinchengzhong,bingzuoweixiandaihuadejutijieduanlaituijin,shizhongguotesedexiandaihuadaoludezhongyaozuchengbufen。

       youyugaigekaifangdetuidong,woguotiqianjiejuelerenminwenbaowenti、renminshenghuozongtishangdadaoxiaokangshuiping。yejiushidengxiaopingsuojiangde“sanbuzou”zhongdediyibuyijingshixian。zaizhegejichushang,yixijinpingweihexindedangzhongyangzaidangdeshibadamingquele“lianggeyibainian”fendoumubiao: daojiandangyibainianshijianchengjingjigengjiafazhan、minzhugengjiajianquan、kejiaogengjiajinbu、wenhuagengjiafanrong、shehuigengjiahexie、renminshenghuogengjiayinshidexiaokangshehui。daoxinzhongguochengliyibainianshi,jibenshixianxiandaihua,bawoguojianchengshehuizhuyixiandaihuaguojia。dangdeshijiudakaiqilequanmianjiansheshehuizhuyixiandaihuaguojiadexinzhengcheng,bingqiehuijiulelianggejieduanshixianshehuizhuyixiandaihuadelantu。diyigejieduan,congerlingerlingniandaoerlingsanwunian,jibenshixianshehuizhuyixiandaihua。diergejieduan,congerlingsanwuniandaobenshijizhongxie,bawoguojianchengfuqiangminzhuwenminghexiemeilideshehuizhuyixiandaihuaqiangguo。xiandaihualantutixianlegaozhiliangkaiqixiandaihuajinchengdeyaoqiu。jiyuxiaokangshehuiquanmianjiancheng,genjushijiudahuijiudelantu,shijiujiewuzhongquanhuiduierlingsanwunianjibenshixianshehuizhuyixiandaihuayuanjingmubiaozuolebushu,jibenshixianxiandaihuazaijingjishangdemubiaokeyigaikuowei: jinruchuangxinxingguojiaqianlie;jibenshixianxinxinggongyehua、xinxihua、chengzhenhua、nongyexiandaihua,jianchengxiandaihuajingjitixi;meilizhongguojianshemubiaojibenshixian;xingchengduiwaikaifangxingeju;renjunguoneishengchanzongzhidadaozhongdengfadaguojiashuiping;zhongdengshouruquntixianzhukuoda;quantirenmingongtongfuyuqudegengweimingxiandeshizhixingjinzhan。

       fazhanzhongguojiadexiandaihuayoubiyaozunxunxiandaihuadeyibanguilv,danbixujiehebenguodeguoqingjixindeguojiguoneijingjishehuizhengzhihuanjing,zouchujuyouzijitesedexiandaihuadaolu。jinruxinshidaihou,xiandaihualilunsuoshejidexiandaihuamubiaojiqineirongyoulexindefazhanhetupo。

       shouxianshixiandaihuadelingyu。guoqujiangdeshigongye、nongye、kejiheguofangsigexiandaihua,xianzaiqiangdiaodeshixinxinggongyehua,xinxihua,chengzhenhua,nongyexiandaihua“sihuatongbu”,zheshijingjilingyuxiandaihuadezhuyaoneirong,tebieqiangdiao“tongbu”。

       qicishixiandaihuadeshehuizhuyitezheng。xijinpingqiangdiao,“xiaochupinkun、gaishanminsheng、zhubushixiangongtongfuyu,shishehuizhuyidebenzhiyaoqiu,shiwomendangdezhongyaoshiming。”zaishijiujiewuzhongquanhuishangxijinpingmingquezhichu,gongtongfuyushishehuizhuyidebenzhiyaoqiu,shirenminqunzhongdegongtongqipan。womenbixubacujinquantirenmingongtongfuyubaizaigengjiazhongyaodeweizhi,jiaotashidi,jiujiuweigong,xiangzhuzhegemubiaogengjiajijiyouweidijinxingnuli。weici,dangzhongyang“shisiwu”guihuajianyizai2035nianjibenshixianshehuizhuyixiandaihuayuanjingmubiaozhongtichu“quantirenmingongtongfuyuqudegengweimingxiandeshizhixingjinzhan”,zaigaishanrenminshenghuopinzhibufentuchuqiangdiaole“zhashituidonggongtongfuyu”。

       disanshixiandaihuadezhongguodaolu。jinrushengtaiwenmingshidaisuoyaojianshedexiandaihuashirenyuziranhexiegongshengdexiandaihua,jiyaochuangzaogengduowuzhicaifuhejingshencaifuyimanzurenminriyizengchangdemeihaoshenghuoxuyao,yeyaotigonggengduoyouzhishengtaichanpinyimanzurenminriyizengchangdeyoumeishengtaihuanjingxuyao。zheyang,xiandaihuadezhongguodaolushilvsefazhanhechuangxinfazhan。chuangxinjiuchengweixiandaihuadediyidongli,shijiujiewuzhongquanhuizejinyibuqiangdiaojianchichuangxinzaixiandaihuajianshequanjuzhongdehexindiwei,bakejiziliziqiangzuoweiguojiafazhandezhanlvezhicheng。2035nianjishenchuangxinxingguojiaqianliechengweijibenshixianxiandaihuadezhongyaobiaozhi。

       disishijianshexiandaihuajingjitixi。guoquguanyuxiandaihuadetaolunguoyuguanzhugdpdezhibiao,yigdpzhibiaohengliangxiandaihua,yizhuagdplaituijinxiandaihua。xianzaigaozhiliangkaiqixiandaihuajiushishijiudatichudejianshexiandaihuajingjitixi。zheshizhuanbianfazhanfangshi、youhuajingjijiegou、zhuanhuanzengchangdonglikuayueyouquanmianxiaokangzhuanxiangxiandaihuajianshede“guankou”dexingdong。xiandaihuajingjitixigenjuxijinpingdejianghuajingshen,sheji: chuangxinyinling、xietongfazhandechanyetixi;zhangxianyoushi、xiediaoliandongdechengxiangquyufazhantixi;ziyuanjieyue、huanjingyouhaodelvsefazhantixi;tixianxiaolv、cujingongpingdeshourufenpeitixi;duoyuanpingheng、anquangaoxiaodequanmiankaifangtixi;tongyikaifang、jingzhengyouxudeshichangtixi;chongfenfahuishichangzuoyong、genghaofahuizhengfuzuoyongdejingjitizhi。xiandaihuajingjitixikeyishuoshixinshidaifazhanlilunzhongjuyoushenkeneihandezhanxingainian。

 

       si、kefueryuanjiegoudenongyexiandaihualujing

       xinzhongguojianguochuqishiluohoudenongyedaguo,gongyeyouqishixiandaigongyebizhonghenxiao,tanbushangeryuanjiegou。zhejiushimaozedongzaiqijieerzhongquanhuishangjiangde: “zhongguogongyehenongyezaiguominjingjizhongdebizhong,jiuquanguofanweilaishuo,zaikangrizhanzhengyiqian,dayueshixiandaixingdegongyezhan10%zuoyou,nongyeheshougongyezhan90%zuoyou。zheshidiguozhuyizhiduhefengjianzhiduyapozhongguodejieguo。zheshijiuzhongguobanzhimindihebanfengjianshehuixingzhizaijingjishangdebiaoxian,zheyeshizaizhongguogemingdeshiqineihezaigemingshengliyihouyigexiangdangchangdeshiqineiyiqiewentidejibenchufadian”。yincimaozedongshifenyoulvdishuo: “xianzaiwomennengzaoshenme?nengzaozhuoziyizi,nengzaochawanchahu,nengzhongliangshi,huannengmochengmianfen,huannengzaozhi,danshi,yiliangqiche、yijiafeiji、yiliangtanke、yiliangtuolajidoubunengzao。”yinci“yiwu”shiqidangdezhidaosixiangshituijinguojiagongyehua,youxianfazhanzhonggongye。zhekeyishuoshidangshijianlidulidexiandaigongyetixidebiranxuanze。qixiaoguoyeshimingxiande。“yiwu”jihuawancheng,xiandaigongyetixijianlileqilai,xiandaigongyeheluohounongyebingcundeeryuanjiegoujiucixingcheng。kefueryuanjiegoudejibenlujingshitishengnongyenongcundefazhanshuiping。maozedongzai《lunshidaguanxi》zhongtichu,gongyehuabudanchunshigongyewenti,yebudanchunshizhonggongyewenti,shejizhonggongye、qinggongyehenongyedefazhanguanxiwenti。danshi,1957niandikaishidedayuejinyundong,quanmindaliangangtie,qingshinongye,jieguoshichuxianlianxusanniandenongyeqianshouheguominjingjidekunnan。1962nianqijinxingguominjingjidiaozheng,hendachengdushangshidiaozhenggongyehenongyedeguanxi。zhongyangrenshidao“yigangweigang”pianmianfazhangangtie,qijieguoshijiyalenongye、qinggongye,zaochengleguominjingjibilideyanzhongshidiao,renminshenghuoshuipingdedafuxiajiang。maozedongzailushanhuiyiqianqizongjiejiaoxunshizhichu: shengchanziliaoyouxianzengchangdeguilvshiyiqieshehuikuodazaishengchandegongtongguilv。womenbazhegeguilvjutihuaweizaiyouxianfazhanzhonggongyedetiaojianxia,gongnongyetongshibingju。guoqushizhong、qing、nong、shang、jiao,xianzaiqiangdiaobanongyegaohao,cixugaiweinong、qing、zhong、jiao、shang。zheyangbingbuweifanmakesizhuyi。bujiuzhongyanggenjumaozedongdezheyisixiangtichule“yinongyeweijichu,yigongyeweizhudao”fazhanguominjingjidezongfangzhen。wentishiyouyunongyezhongrenmingongshezhiduyayinongmindelaodongjijixing,gongnongyechanpinjiagedejiandaochaboduonongyedengyuanyin,jishimingquelenongyedejichudiwei,nongyedeluohou,nongmindepinkunwentichangqidebudaogaibian。gongnong、chengxiangeryuanjiegouwentifeichangtuchu。

       woguocongnongcunkaishidegaige,kaishileeryuanjiegouxiandaihuadejincheng。zaifuqilaideshidaituidongnongyexiandaihuajinchengdegaigehefazhanlujingzhuyaozai3gefangmian。yishiyinongminjiatingchengbaozerenzhiweineirongdegaige,jieshurenmingongshezhidu,congjiatingcaichanhejingyingzhidushangdiaodongnongmindeshengchanhejingyingjijixing。ershigaigenongchanpinliutongtizhi,nongchanpinjinrushichang,nongchanpinjiagefangkai,suixingjiushi,bujinbanongmintuixiangleshichang,erqiezengjialenongchanpindeshichangshouyi。sanshinongcunfazhanxiangzhenqiye,kaishilezainongcuntuijingongyehuaheyichengzhenhuatuijinchengshihuadejincheng。chuangzaolezaisannongzhiwaidaidongsannongfazhandedaolu: yifeinonghuajiejuenongyewenti,yichengshihuajiejuenongcunwenti,yilaodonglizhuanyijiejuenongminwenti。qixiaoguofeichangmingxian,bujindadajiakuaigongyehuajincheng,zhongguoxunsuyounongyedaguozhuanbianweixinxingdegongyeguojia;erqienongye、nongminhenongcundefazhanshuipingyebiguoqudadatigao。sishi2006nian3yue14ri,shijierendasicihuiyitongguojueyi,zhuangyanxuanbuzaiquanguofanweineichediquxiaochuyanxieyiwaidenongyetechanshui、quanbumianzhengmuyeshui,zhongguoyanxule2600duoniande“huangliangguoshui”zoujinlelishibowuguan,youcidaidong,nongminfudandadajianqing。wushidangdeshiqidatichulezaixindelishiqidianshang“tongchouchengxiangfazhan,tuijinshehuizhuyixinnongcunjianshe”deyaoqiu。youcitichuzhongguotesedechengxiangtongchoutuijinnongyexiandaihuadaolu。qizhuyaolujingshi,jianliyigongcunong、yichengdaixiangdechangxiaojizhi,xingchengchengxiangjingjishehuifazhanyitihuaxingeju。

       jinruxinshidai,danchuntuchugongyehuadexiandaihua,bukebimianhuichuxiannongyexiandaihuaxiangduizhihoudezhuangkuang,nongye、nongminhenongcundefazhanzhuangkuangchengwei“sihuatongbu”deduanban。duicixijinpingzhichu: jishijianglaichengzhenhuadadao70%yishang,huanyousiwuyirenzainongcun,nongcunjuebunengchengweihuangwudenongcun、liushoudenongcun、jiyizhongdeguyuan,chengzhenhuayaofazhan,nongyexiandaihuahexinnongcunjiansheyeyaofazhan,tongbufazhancainengxiangdeyizhang。zheyiweizhusannongxiandaihuaxuyaoyoufeinongfazhandaidongzhuanxiangzhimiansannongfazhan,jinongyexiandaihua(nongyeqiang)、nongcunxiandaihua(nongcunmei)、nongminxiandaihua(nongminfu)。

       genjuxijinpingguanyusannongxiandaihuadesixiang,xinshidaituijindesannongxiandaihuakeyiguijiewei3gefangmian。yishinongyegonggeicegaige。gaibiannongyefazhanfanshi,tigaonongyezhiliangxiaoyihejingzhengli。yiyoudenongyefazhanfanshikeguijiewei“shengyu”fanshi,jizhuiqiunongyeshengyu,shengyunongyelaodonglizhuanyi。suoyaozhuanxiangdenongyefazhanxinfanshishi: zhuiqiupinzhinongye,zhuanxiang“pinzhihefujiazhi”fanshi。goujianyujuminxiaofeikuaisushengjixiangshiyingdegaozhigaoxiaodexiandaihuanongyechanyetixi。ershixiangcunzhenxing,yizhenxingxiangcunweizhuashoutuidongsannongxiandaihua。nongcunzuijicengdeshixiangcun,meiyouxiangcundexiandaihuajiumeiyounongcundexiandaihua。xiangcunzhenxingshibaokuochanyezhenxing、rencaizhenxing、wenhuazhenxing、shengtaizhenxing、zuzhizhenxingdequanmianzhenxing。sanshichengxiangfazhanyitihua。tuidongchengshifazhanyaosutongguo“hua”daochengzhenerhuadaonongcun,conggenbenshanggaibiannongcundeluohoumianmao。zheshichengshiyaosudechengzhenhua,shichengshishenghuofangshixiangnongcunkuozhan,chengxiangfazhanyitihuashejichengxiangguihua、jiuyefuwu、shehuibaozhang、gonggongfuwu、chengshiguanli“wugeyitihua”。sishixinxingchengzhenhua,buzhishizhinongminjincheng,hexinshirendechengzhenhua。yifangmianyouxutuijinnongyezhuanyirenkoushiminhua,nulishixianchengzhenjibengonggongfuwuchangzhurenkouquanfugai。lingyifangmiannongminshiminhua,nongminxiangshouchengshiwenming。zhejiuyaoqiujiangtigonggeishimindejihuihesheshianpaidaonongcunchengzhen,kuodachengzhenjiuyedejihui,bagaozhiliangdejiaoyu、wenhuayiliaosheshibandaonongcunchengzhen,zengjianongcuntebieshichengzhendegonggongchanpin、gonggongsheshiheshangyesheshidegonggei。youcijiejuenongminbujinruchengshijiunengxiangshoudaogezhongshimindequanli。

 

       wu、jingjifazhandegonggeicehexuqiucediaojiejizhi

       xijinpingzhichu: “gonggeicehexuqiuceshiguanlihediaokonghongguanjingjidelianggejibenshouduan。”zaibutongdefazhanjieduan,“jingjizhengceshiyigonggeiceweizhongdianhuanshiyixuqiuceweizhongdian,yaoyijuyiguohongguanjingjixingshizuochujueze”。diaokongjingjifazhandejizhihezhengcejixuyaogeijingjizengchangtigongdongli,youxuyaogeijingjizengchangtigongfangxiang。gonggeicehexuqiucedetifazhishizaijinruxinshidaicaitichu,danzaishijianzhongzaibutongshiqibutongchengdudoucunzaizheliangcedediaojiezhengce,zhishicezhongdianbutong。

       jianguochuqizaiduanquejingjibeijingxiazhubujianliqidejihuajingjitizhiduijingjifazhancaiqudeshigonggeiceguanli。biaoxianweicongshangdaoxiadezhilingxingshengchanjihua,tonggoutongxiaodeliutongtizhi。jibendefangshishi,zai“fazhanjingji,baozhanggonggei”desixiangzhidaoxiayixiadadeshuliangzhibiaodiaokongfazhan,xuyaokuaisufazhanshidiaogaoshengchanhejijianzhibiao,jingjichuxianwentixuyaodiaozhengshizediaodizhibiao。zhendui“dayuejin”dejiaoxun,dangzhongyangzai1959niandelushanhuiyishangtichulezonghepinghengdeyaoqiu。zonghepinghengsheji3gezhongyaopingheng: nongyebenshendenong、lin、mu、fu、yuzhijiandepingheng,gongyeneibudepingheng,gongyehenongyedepingheng。zhenggeguominjingjidebiliguanxi,shizaizhexiejichushangdezonghepingheng。xianran,suoweidezonghepinghengyeshiconggonggeicerushoude。zheshizaiduanquejingjibeijingxiajihuajingjiguanlidefangshi。

       fuqilaishidaideshichanghuagaigeshijishangshixuqiucedegaige,jianliyoushichanglaijuedingziyuanpeizhidetizhijizhiyejiushizhuanxiangxuqiucediaojie: zaiweiguanshang,qianghuashichangjingzhengjizhi,tuchushichangxuqiudaoxiang,quxiaozhilingxingjihuadeng。zaihongguanshang,yifangmiancongzongxuqiurushoujianlihongguanzongliangdiaokongjizhi,mingquexiaofei、touzi、chukousanjiamachexietongladongjingjizengchang,tuchuxiaofeixuqiudeladongzuoyong。lingyifangmian,mianxiangzongxuqiudehongguandiaokongzhuanxiangcaizhenghehuobizhengce,xiangjicaiqujinsuoxingde、kuozhangxingdehuopinghengxingdecaizhenghehuobizhengce,hongguanjingjiguanlizhuanxiangxuqiuguanlishizaigaobieduanquejingjizhuanxiangshengyujingjibeijingxiashichangjingjidediaojiefangshi,mudeshigengduofahuishichangdediaojiezuoyong,yixuqiuyalihedaoxiangtigaoxiaoyihexiaolv。

       jinruxinshidai,dangzhongyangfaxian,zhishizaixuqiucejinxinggaigehexuqiuguanli,bingbunengyouxiaojiejuejingjiyunxingdexiaolvhegonggeizhiliang,bunengmanzurenminmeihaoshenghuodexuyao。zhejiushejigonggeicedejiegouxingwenti。zai2015niandidezhongyangjingjigongzuohuiyishangxijinpingzongshujifachuletuijingonggeicejiegouxinggaigedehaoling: “zaishidukuodazongxuqiudetongshi,zhulijiaqianggonggeicejiegouxinggaige,zhulitigaogonggeitixizhilianghexiaolv,zengqiangjingjichixuzengchangdongli,tuidongwoguoshehuishengchanlishuipingshixianzhengtiyuesheng。”zaiqingzhugaigekaifang40zhouniandahuishangxijinpingdejianghuazhongzaicimingque“womenyaojianchiyigonggeicejiegouxinggaigeweizhuxian。”gonggeicejiegouxinggaigeshiwoguojinruxinshidaihoutuidongjingjifazhandezhuxian。yujihuajingjiniandaidegonggeicediaojiebutong,zheshizaishichangjingjijichushangshengyujingjibeijingxiadegonggeicediaokong。

       gonggeihexuqiushishichangjingjineizaiguanxidelianggejibenfangmian,xijinpingcongdiaojiejingjifazhanfangshidejiaoduzhichu: “xuqiuceguanlizhongzaijiejuezongliangxingwenti,zhuzhongduanqidiaokong,zhuyaoshitongguodiaojieshuishou、caizhengzhichu、huobixindaidenglaicijihuoyizhixuqiu,jinertuidongjingjizengchang。gonggeiceguanli,zhongzaijiejuejiegouxingwenti,zhuzhongjifajingjizengchangdedongli。”xianran,gonggeicediaojiezhuzhongchangqifazhan,shishixiangaozhiliangfazhanyouxiaodiaokongfangshi。yuyibandediaozhengshengchanguanxidegaigebutong,gonggeicejiegouxinggaigeshiyaojiejuefazhanbenshendewenti。“gonggeicejiegouxinggaige,shuodaodizuizhongmudeshimanzuxuqiu,zhugongfangxiangshitigaogonggeizhiliang,genbentujingshishenhuagaige。”

       shouxian,zhulizhenxingshitijingji。shitijingjishiyiguojingjidelishenzhiben、caifuzhiyuan。xianshizhongcunzaixunijingjijiuchuxian“tuoshixiangxu”dexianxiang,qiyuanyin,chulexunijingjilingyuzhongcunzaide“yiyebaofu”deyourentoujixianxiangwai,zuizhongyaodeyuanyinshishitijingjiqiyeyinfudantaizhongwuliketuertouzibuzu。yinci,gonggeicejiegouxinggaigemubiaohuanshiyaoshitijingjifali,xuyaozugoudeduishitijingjidezhichi,zaishitijingjilingyupeiyufazhandexindongneng,zaigaozhiliangfazhanzhongzengqiangshitijingjiqiyedeyinglinengli。

       qici,tigaogonggeitixidezhilianghexiaolv。gonggeitixizhilianghexiaolvdidetuchubiaoxianshiyouxiaogonggeibuzuhewuxiaochannengguoshengbingcun。ruxijinpingsuoshuo,“woguogonggeitixichannengshifenqiangda,dandaduoshuzhinengmanzuzhongdiduan、dizhiliang、dijiagedexuqiu。”jinruzhongdengshourujieduanhou,jiejuelewenbaowentihoujumindexiaofeixuqiukaishizhuanxing,gengweiguanzhujiankang、anquan、weisheng、dangcifangmiandexuqiu。ershengchanhefuwuhuantingliuzaidishourujieduandegonggei,zhuiqiushuliang,buzhongshizhiliang,weishengchanershengchan,bunengshiyingjinruzhongdengshourujieduanyihouxiaofeixuqiudexinbianhua,manzuzhonggaoduanxiaofeidezhonggaoduanchanpinhefuwugonggeibuzu,bunengmanzuduoyanghua、gexinghua、gaoduanhuaxuqiu,shibichanshengyouxiaogonggeibuzu,wuxiaochannengguosheng,zhongdiduanchanpinguoshengwenti。zhexiejiegouxingwentixuyaozaigonggeicejiegouxinggaigezhongdedaojiejue。gaigemubiaojiushixijinpingzhichude: “youhuaxianyoushengchanyaosupeizhihezuhe,tigaoshengchanyaosuliyongshuiping,cujinquanyaosushengchanlvtigao,buduanzengqiangjingjineishengzengchangdongli。”xijinpingxingxiangdiyongjiajianchengchufalaishuomingjiegoudiaozhengdelujing: “jiafajiushifaxianhepeiyuxinzengchangdian,jianfajiushiyasuoluohouchanneng、huajiechannengguosheng,chengfajiushiquanmiantuijinkeji、guanli、shichang、shangyemoshichuangxin,chufajiushikuodafenzi、suoxiaofenmu,tigaolaodongshengchanlvhezibenhuibaolv,zheshidiaojiegouzhegesizeyunsuandezuizhongmubiao。”zhiliangbiange、xiaolvbiange、donglibiangejiuchengweitigaoquanyaosushengchanlvdejibentujing。

       zuihou,kefugonggeicededonglibuzuwenti,peiyufazhanxindongneng。shouxianshijifashichangzhutidehuoli。yuxuqiucetuchudeshichangxuanzebutong,gonggeicezetuchujingjijili,tigongfazhandedongli。yiyoudegaigejiejuelechanquanzhidudedongliwenti,dangonggeicerengxiandonglibuzu。tuchubiaoxianshiqiyedegaoshuifu,gaolixi,gaoshehuifudan。qiyefenxiangbudaofazhandechengguoyejiuqueshaofazhandedonglihehuoli。gonggeiceduishichangzhutidejili: yishijiangdiqiyeshui、fei、lixiheshehuifudan,jiangdiqiyechengben,shiqiyeqingzhuangshangzhen。ershibaohuqiyejiacaichan,jiliqiyejiajingshen(hongyinxing,2016)。qicishipeiyuxindongneng。gonggeicejiegouxinggaigejiutongfazhanshiyingdaoliyiyang,shixuyaochangqishixingdefazhanzhengce,youzhuchangyuandemubiao。zaiquchanneng、qukucun、qugangganqudemingxianjinzhandetongshi,xuyaojinyibuzhuanxiangpeiyuxindongneng。guanyuxindongneng,xijinpingzhichu: “jiyaojindingjingjifazhanxinjieduan、kejifazhanxinqianyan,haobudongyaobafazhanxindongnengzuoweidazaojingzhengxinyoushidezhongyaozhuashou,youyaojiandingbuyidibapochujiudongnengzuoweizengtianfazhanxindongneng、houzhizhengtishilidezhongyaoneirong。”shijiudamingquezaixianjieduansuoyaopeiyudexindongnengzhuyaoshejizhonggaoduanxiaofei、chuangxinyinling、lvseditan、gongxiangjingji、xiandaigongyinglianherenlizibenfuwudenglingyu。

       zaixijinpingkanlai,gonggeiceyuxuqiucedediaojie,“erzhebushifeicijibi、yiquyicundetidaiguanxi,ershiyaoxianghupeihe、xiediaotuijin。”jinnianlai,zaizhongmeimaoyizhanjixinguanyiqingzaishijieliuxingcongerdaozhishijiejingjichuxianshuaituidebeijingxia,woguojingjifazhantongyangmianlinxuqiubuzuhejingjixiaxingdeyali。dangzhongyangjishitichu“liuwen”(wenjiuye、wenjinrong、wenwaimao、wenwaizi、wentouzi、wenyuqi)he“liubao”(baojuminjiuye,baojibenminsheng,baoshichangzhuti,baoliangshinengyuananquan,baochanyeliangongyinglianwending,baojicengyunzhuan)derenwu。zheshicijixuqiu,zaixuqiuduanjifahuolijiuxiandefeichangzhongyao。bujinruci,xinfazhangejusuoyaoqiude,yiguominjingjideneixunhuanweizhutiyexuyaoyouzugoudeshichangxuqiu。yincishijiujiewuzhongquanhuitichushenhuaxuqiucegaigeyugonggeicegaigexiangpeihedesilu。zheliangzhedejiehetixiandiaokongfazhandechangqimubiaoheduanqimubiaodejiehe。

 

       liu、jingjifazhangejudeyanjin

       fazhangejushejiguominjingjineibuxunhuanyuwaibuxunhuanjixianghuguanxidebuju。

       gaigekaifangqiande30nianchule“yiwu”jihuaqijianyinjinsulian156gezhongdaxiangmuwai,woguodejingjijibenshangchuyuneixunhuanzhuangtai,zhuyaoyuanyinshiguojishangduixinzhongguodejingjifengsuo。

       gaigekaifanghou,womendangbaduiwaikaifangmingqueweiyixiangchangqidejibenguoce,youcidakaileguomen,1980niandangzhongyangjuedingjianshenzhenjingjitequ。yiciweibiaozhizhongguoquanmiankaifang,canyudaojingjiquanqiuhuadejincheng。1997nian,dangdeshiwudajinyibumingqueduiwaikaifangshiyaogenghaodiliyongguoneiguowailianggeshichang、liangzhongziyuan,gulijingjitequ、shanghaipudongxinquzaitizhichuangxin、chanyeshengji、kuodakaifangdengfangmianjixuzouzaiqianmian,fahuiduiquanguodeshifan、fushe、daidongzuoyong。tebieshiqiangdiaozhengquechuliduiwaikaifangtongdulizizhu、ziligengshengdeguanxi,weihuguojiajingjianquan。shiliudaguanyuxiediaofazhandewugetongchoubaokuotongchouduiwaikaifangheguoneifazhan。shiqidazemingquetichulewanshanneiwailiandong、huligongying、anquangaoxiaodekaifangxingjingjitixi,xingchengjingjiquanqiuhuatiaojianxiacanyuguojijingjihezuohejingzhengxinyoushideyaoqiu。zheyang,woguobujinnenggouliyongguowaiziyuanheguojishichang,tongshiyeshiwoguojingjizaicanyuguojijingzhengzhongzengqiangleguojijingzhengli。hujintaotongzhizaidangdeshiqidabaogaozhong,bajianchidulizizhutongcanyujingjiquanqiuhuajieheqilai,zuoweiwoguogongguhefazhanshehuizhuyideshida“baoguijingyan”zhiyi。

       zhongguojingjijinrulexinshidai,duiwaikaifangyejinruxinshidai。2013nian,xijinpingzaiboaoyazhouluntanshangzhichu: “zhongguojiangzaigengdafanwei、gengkuanlingyu、gengshencengcishangtigaokaifangxingjingjishuiping。”genjuxijinpingkaifangfazhandelinian,xinshidaidekaifangfazhanjuyouruxiatedian: shouxian,jiansherenleimingyungongtongti。yutelangpuzhengfutuixing“meiguoyouxian”deniquanqiuhuazhengcexiangfan。xijinpingkangqilejixutuidongquanqiuhuadedaqi,mingquetichujiansherenleimingyungongtongtidekexuelunduan。qineihanjiushitasuoshuode: jianchiduihuaxieshang,jiansheyigechijiuhepingdeshijie;jianchigongjiangongxiang,jiansheyigepubiananquandeshijie;jianchihezuogongying,jiansheyigegongtongfanrongdeshijie;jianchijiaoliuhujian,jiansheyigekaifangbaorongdeshijie;jianchilvseditan,jiansheyigeqingjiemeilideshijie。genjujianlirenleimingyungongtongtidesixiang,jianshe“sichouzhilujingjidai”he“21shijihaishangsichouzhilu”dezhanlvegouxiangyizhengcegoutong、sheshiliantong、maoyichangtong、zijinrongtong、minxinxiangtongweizhuyaoneirong,quanfangweituijinyuyanxianguojiahezuo,goujianliyigongtongti、mingyungongtongtihezerengongtongti,shenhuayuyanxianguojiaduocengcijingmaohezuo,daidongwoguoyanbian、neiludiqufazhan。qici,tuidongxingchengquanmiankaifangxingeju。2018nian4yue,xijinpingzaiboaoyazhouluntanshangtichu: “jianchiyinjinlaihezouchuqubingzhong,tuidongxingchengluhaineiwailiandong、dongxishuangxianghujidekaifanggeju,shixinggaoshuipingdemaoyihetouziziyouhuabianlihuazhengce,tansuojianshezhongguoteseziyoumaoyigang。” zhegeduiwaikaifangxingejutixiangaozhiliangdekaifangfazhan。jutibiaoxianzai: diyi,zaitishengxiangdongkaifangdetongshi,tuijinyu“yidaiyilu”yanxianguojiahezuo,jiakuaixiangxikaifangbufa,tuidongneiluyanbiandiquchengweikaifangqianyan。dier,jinkouyuchukoubingzhong。2018nianzaishanghaijubandiyijiejinbohui,2020nianzaibeijingjubanzhongguoguojifuwumaoyijiaoyihui。disan,kuodayinjinwaizidelingyuheshendu。bujinyifumianqingdanbaozhangwaizijinruzhongguodelingyu,erqiejinyibufangkaiduiwaizijinrudexianzhi,youqishijinronglingyudejinyibukaifang。disi,jianliduiwaikaifangdexinzaiti。weituidongziyuanheshangpingengweibianlideguojiliudong,shixinggaoshuipingdemaoyihetouziziyouhuabianlihuazhengce,sheliziyoumaoyishiyanqu、ziyoumaoyigang。

       dangjinshidaimianlinshijiebainianweiyouzhidabianju。mouxiefadaguojiatuixingfanquanqiuhuazhengce,baohuzhuyishengxing,tebieshimeiguotelangpuzhengfutiaoqizhongmeimaoyizhan,qituyuzhongguozaikeji、chanyedenglingyutuogou。zaijiashang2020nianzaiquanqiusinvedexinguanbingdudaozhishijiejingjishuaitui,shiyixiliequanqiuchanyelianduanlie。zaicibeijingxia,zhongguobujinyaokangqijixutuidongquanqiuhuadedaqi,huanyaogenjuzishenfazhandexuyao,tuidongxingchengyiguoneidaxunhuanweizhuti、guoneiguojishuangxunhuanxianghucujindexinfazhangeju。zhengruxijinping2020nian8yue24rizaijingjishehuilingyuzhuanjiazuotanhuishangsuozhichude: “zhegexinfazhangejushigenjuwoguofazhanjieduan、huanjing、tiaojianbianhuatichulaide,shizhongsuwoguoguojihezuohejingzhengxinyoushidezhanlvejueze。jinnianlai,suizhuwaibuhuanjinghewoguofazhansuojuyoudeyaosubingfudebianhua,shichangheziyuanliangtouzaiwaideguojidaxunhuandongnengmingxianjianruo,erwoguoneixuqianlibuduanshifang,guoneidaxunhuanhuoliriyiqiangjing,keguanshangyouzhucixiaobichangdetaishi。”shijishangwoguozi2008nianguojijinrongweijiyilai,woguojingjiyijingzaixiangyiguoneidaxunhuanweizhutizhuanbian。yituoguimochuyushijieqianliedeguoneishichang,zhuazhukuodaneixuzhegezhanlvejidian,shishengchan、fenpei、liutong、xiaofeigengduoyituoguoneishichang,tishenggonggeitixiduiguoneixuqiudeshipeixing,xingchenglexuqiuqianyingonggei、gonggeichuangzaoxuqiudegenggaoshuipingdongtaipingheng。

       xinfazhangejushikaifangdeguoneiguojishuangxunhuan。shiyingkaifangfazhandexuyaojixinfazhangeju,woguodekaifangxingjingjifashengzhanlvexingbianhua,zuiweituchudeshi,chukoudaoxiangdekaifangxingjingjizhuanxiangxuqiudaoxiangdekaifangxingjingji。kaifangfuwuyuchanyejiegoudeshengji,tebieshifazhanzhanlvexingxinxingchanye,zhanlingkejihechanyedeshijiezhigaodian。tuidongchanyechuangxindehexinjishushimaibulaitaobulaide,xuqiudaoxiangdehexinshichuangxinweidaoxiangfazhankaifangxingjingji,tixianzengchangdeneishengxing。chuangxindaoxiangdekaifangxingjingjijuyou4getezheng。diyi,yichukougaokejidelvsechanpintidaiziyuanmijixingchanpin,tebieshiyaotidaigaonengyuanxiaohaogaowuranchanpinchukou。dier,yijinkouhexinjishudezhongjianchanpintidaijinkouyibandezuizhongchanpin。disan,shengjiwaishangzhijietouzi。zaiyouxufangkuanshichangzhunrutongshi,zhuzhongwaizizhiliang。yinjindewaiziyichuangxinweidaoxiangjinxingxuanze: jinrudehuanjieshigaoxinjishuyanfahuanjie,guliwaizizaizhongguobentuchuangxinyanfaxinjishu;jinrudechanyeshiguojixianjindexinxingchanye。disi,zhuliyinjinchuangxinziyuan,youqizhuliyinjingaoduankejiheguanlirencai,jinxingkaifangshichuangxin。

       woguodechanyecanyuguojiguoneishuangxunhuanguanjianzaichanyelianshangbushuchuangxinlian,tishengchanyelianxiandaihuashuiping。mianduiwoguoduogechanyedequanqiuchanyelianzhongduan,bujinxuyaoshutongchanyedeshangxiayouguanxi,baochichanyeliangongyingliandewendingxinghejingzhengli,huanyaojianlizizhukekongdexiandaichanyetixi。woguodechanyexianzhuangruxijinpingzongshujisuoshuo: woguoguanjianhexinjishushouzhiyurendejumianshangweigenbengaibian,chuangzaoxinchanye、yinlingweilaifazhandekejichubeiyuanyuanbugou,chanyehuanchuyuquanqiujiazhilianzhongdiduan。yincixijinpingtichu: weiraochanyelianbushuchuangxinlian,bakejichuangxinzhenzhenluodaochanyefazhanshang。zaichanyelianshangbushuchuangxinlianyoulianggefangxiang。shouxian,yituosuoyongyoudegaoduanjishubujuyiwoweizhudaoquanqiujiazhilian。yongyouzizhuzhishichanquandehexinjishudeyoushichanyexuyaoweiraochuangxinlianbujuchanyelian。jianlidadaoshijiexianjinshuipingdechanyelian;qici,chuyuquanqiujiazhilianzhongdiduanhuanjiexiangzhonggaoduanpanshengyeyaobujuchuangxinlian。qilujingjiushiduichuyugaoduanhuanjiedejishuxiaohuaxishouzaichuangxin,bianganbianxue,zhangwozhonggaoduanhuanjiedehexinjishu。

       新發展格局是開放的相互促進的國內國際雙循環。如何實現內循環和外循環相互促進?習近平指出: “站在國內國際兩個大局相互聯系的高度,審視我國和世界的發展。”具體要求: 一是堅持出口和進口并重。較過去的出口導向,更為重視進口,利用超大規模的國內市場,以“進”促“出”。二是“引進來”和“走出去”并重。提高國際投資合作水平。較過去的突出“引進來,更為關注走出去,尤其是以全球價值鏈的方式進入“一帶一路”國家和地區。三是引資引技引智并舉。較過去突出引進外資,更為重視引進創新要素,包括升級外商直接投資。在有序放寬市場準入同時,注重外資質量。引進的外資以創新為導向進行選擇: 進入的環節是高新技術研發環節,鼓勵外資在中國本土創新研發新技術;進入的產業是國際先進的新興產業。引技和引智尤其著力引進高端科技和管理人才,進行開放式創新。 

 

zhuyaoguandian

       yanjiuzhongguogongchandangzuoweizhizhengdanglingdaozhongguorenminjianshexinzhongguodejingjifazhansixiang,buzhishizhidaojinrizhijingjichengjiushicongnalilaide,gengyaozhidaojinruxinshidaihouzhongguojingjifazhanyaowangnaliqu,yejiushihuidahaoshixianshenmeyangdefazhan、zenyangshixianfazhanzhegezhongdawenti。

       (1)engesicengjingshuoguo,“womendelilunshifazhanzhudelilun”,“tazaibutongdeshidaijuyouwanquanbutongdexingshi,tongshijuyouwanquanbutongdeneirong。”zhongguogongchandangzaijianshexinzhongguoshiqijingjifazhansixiangyanjindelishizhengminglezheyidian。xinzhongguochengliyilaidegegeshiqi,meiyidairendouyousuochushidaidelishishiming。meiyidaizhongguogongchandangrendounulicongzhongguoshijichufa,congrenminqunzhongdezuidaliyichufa,yijujingjiguilvtansuoshihezijidefazhandaolu。zaijianxingqilishishimingguochengzhongyouchenggongdejingyanyeyoushibaidejiaoxun;suiyouquzhe,danzuizhongshiqianjinde。jingguojidaizhongguogongchandangrendenuli,chuangzaolefazhanzhongnongyedaguozaibutaichangdeshijianneichengweixinxinggongyehuaguojia,bingchengweishijiedierdajingjitideqiji。dangdejingjifazhansixiangyerizhenwanshanhechengshu。yanjiubutongfazhanjieduandejingjifazhansixiang,bujinkeyizhidaojintiandejingjichengjiulaizhibuyi,huankeyijiashenlijiewoguojinruxinfazhanjieduandezhongyaoyiyi,jimingquexinfazhanjieduansuochudelishifangwei,youyaomingquexinfazhanjieduandejingjifazhanrenwu。

       (2)jingjifazhandezhongguodaolujijingjichengjiuyiweishirensuorenke。yanjiuzhongguogongchandangdejingjifazhansixiang,jiushiyaozhichu,meigejieduanfazhandeshijiandoushiyouyidingdefazhanlinianhexiangyingdejingjifazhansixianglaiyinlingde。dangdejingjifazhansixiangfeichangfengfu。benwenze6geweiduyanjiujingjifazhansixiangyanjin,congermingquejinruxinjieduanhoujingjifazhansixiangdehexinneirong。qizhongshehuizhuyaomaodunfenximingquexinjieduanfazhanrenwushiyaogenjurenminmeihaoshenghuodexuyaojiejuefazhandebuchongfenbupinghengwenti;fazhanlinianfenximingquezhuanbianjingjifazhanfangshishixiangaozhiliangfazhandeneihan;xiandaihuafenximingqueshehuizhuyixiandaihuademubiaojigegelingyuxiandaihuadeneirong;eryuanjiegoufenximingquejiejuefazhanzhongguojiagongtongdefazhanwentidezhongguolujing,youqishijijiejuenongminjueduipinkunxianxianghoumingquesannongxiandaihuawenti;jingjifazhandiaojiejizhifenximingquetuidongjingjizengchangbingyouxiaotigaojingjizengchangdezhilianghexiaoyidegonggeicehexuqiucedediaojiejizhi;fazhangejudefenxicongchangtongguominjingjineixunhuanhewaixunhuandejiaodumingquewoguojingjishixianxiandaihuadelujingxuanze。zhejigefangmianfazhansixiangshizhongguogongchandangrendechuangxin,shixijinpingxinshidaizhongguoteseshehuizhuyijingjisixiangzhongyaozuchengbufen,beichenggongdezhongguofazhanshijiansuozhengshi。jiangzhe6gefangmianchuangxindejingjifazhansixiangxuelihua、xitonghua,jiuchengweizhongguofazhanjingjixuedezhugan。

       (3)zhengquedefazhanlinianyuanyuduikeguanguilvdekexuerenshi。xijinpingtongzhizhichu,“fazhanbixushizunxunjingjiguilvdekexuefazhan,bixushizunxunziranguilvdekechixufazhan”,zhongguogongchandanglingdaoxinzhongguojingjijianshedejinchengjiushirenshiheyanjiujingjiguilvdeguocheng。zaishijianzhongshenmeshihouzunxunjingjiguilv,jingjijiupingwenjiankangfazhan,shenmeshihouweibeijingjiguilvjingjijiuyaoshoucuozhe。woguocengjingweibufuhejingjiguilvdezhidaosixiangfuchuguochenzhongdedaijia,yeyinzunxunjingjiguilverhuodefazhandehongli。tansuojingjiguilvbunengyicuerjiu,xuyaobuduanyanjiuxinwenti,tanqiuxinguilv,zunzhongbingzunxunguilv,yizaishijianzhongshaofancuowu,shixiangaozhiliangfazhan。

 

       benwenyuanzaiyu《guanlishijie》2021niandi4qi,cankaowenxianyinyongfanli: hongyinxing,zhongguogongchandanglingdaojianshexinzhongguodejingjifazhansixiangyanjin[j].guanlishijie,2021,37(4):1-11.