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安同良等: 中國企業R&D補貼策略: 補貼閾限、最優規模與模式選擇

發布時間: 2021-04-27

研究背景

       r&dbutieshidangjinshijiegeguotuijinbenguochuangxin、canyuquanqiujishujingzheng、zhanlingjishuqianyanzhigaodiandezhongyaochanyezhengce。juoecdtongji,2016nianr&dzhichujiaogaodemeiguo、deguoheribenduiqiyer&dtouzidezhijiebutiefenbiewei248.54yimeiyuan、21.11yiouyuanhe1259.57yiriyuan,zhandangnianqiyer&dtouzidebizhongfenbiewei6.83%、3.36%he0.95%。congbutiemoshilaikan,jinguanjianjiedeshuishouyouhuicuoshizhujianchengweizhengfur&dbutiezhengcedezhuliu,dangeguorengcunzaizhujiaodadechayi,riben、aodaliyadengguojiazhuyaoyikaojianjiedeshuishouyouhuizhengce,shuishouyouhuijinezhanr&dbutiezongliangdebizhongchaoguo80%;hanguo、aodilidengguocaiyongzhijiecaizhengbutiehejianjieshuishouyouhuiliangleizhengcebingzhongdecelve,liangleizhichudeshuliangjibenxiangdang;meiguo、eluosidengguojiazezhuyaocaiyongzhijiecaizhengbutiedebanfa,zhijiebutiejinezhanbutiezongliangdebizhongchaoguo70%。

       congzhongguodeqingkuanglaikan,changqiyilaizhongyangyudifanggejizhengfudoushifenzhongshiduiqiyer&dxingweideguliheyindao,youqishijinnianlai“chuangxinqudong”、“zhinengzhizao”、“dazhongchuangye、wanzhongchuangxin”dengyixilieguojiachuangxinzhanlvedeshishi,zhengfuduiqiyer&dtouzidejiliyubutiecuoshizhubuxitonghuayuzhiduhua。butiecuoshiyoubudingqide“kejixiangmu”、“kejijihua”xiangzhiduhuadeshuishouzhengceguodu;butiefanweiyouguoyouqiye、jitiqiyefugaidaosuoyouzaihuaqiye,butieqiangduyebuduantigao。juoecddeguji,2010nianzhongguoduiqiyer&ddebutiezonge(zhengfuzhijiebutiejiashuishouyouhui)wei414.94yiyuan,2016nianzengjiadao938.79yiyuan。congqiangdushangkan,butiezongezhangdpdebizhongcong2010niande0.10%zengjiadao2016niande0.13%。congjiegoushangkan,2010nianzhengfuduiqiyer&dzhichudeshuishouyouhuihezhijiebutiefenwei178.19yiyuanhe236.75yiyuan,erzhezhibiwei0.75∶1,dao2016nianliangleibutiejinefenbiewei489.08yiyuanhe449.7yiyuan,erzhezhibiwei1.09∶1,r&dbutiemoshizhubuyouzhiduhuahewendinghuadeshuishouzhengcezhanzhudao。congr&dbutiedejixiaolaikan,yuguojishangdejianyanxiangsi,guoneixuezheyecunzaijiaoduozhenglun。

       zhexielilunshangdezhenglunyugeguoshijianshangdechayibiaoming,zhengfuduiqiyer&dbutiedeshuliang、jixiaoyubutiemoshixuanzedengwentishouduozhongyinsuyingxiang,bukejixieditaoyongtaguojingyan。zaidangqianzhongguojingjimairuxinshidaigaozhiliangfazhan、chuangxinweijuxiandaihuajianshequanjuhexindebeijingxia,weituidong“zhongguozhizao”xiang“zhongguochuangzao”zhuanxing,shixianjishushang“genpao”、“bingpao”dao“lingpao”dechanbian,zhengfuduiqiyer&dbutiezhengceyingruheshishi,r&dbutieguimoyinggaiweichizaihezhongshuiping,zaigechanyeyuqiyejianyingruhefenpei,yingcaiyongshenmeyangdemoshihuojizhijinxingbutiedeng,zheyixiliewentidejiejuebujinnenggoujinyibuwanshanr&dbutielilun,erqieduizhongguor&dbutieshijiangengjuzhongyaodezhidaoyiyi。


zhuyaoguandian

       benyanjiucongjishuwaiyisixiangchufa,zailoury(1979)chuangxinjingzhengkuangjiaxiagoujianr&dbutieduiqiyejishuchuangxindeyingxiangjizhimoxing,conglilunshangfenxixuyaocaiqur&dbutiedelinjietiaojian、r&dbutiedezuiyouguimo、r&dbutiexiaolvdeyingxiangyinsu,yiji“puhuishi”butiehe“jingzhengshi”butieliangleibutiemoshidebijiaoyuxuanze。zaililunfenxidejichushang,xuanqu22gechanyecengmiandemianbanshuju,duizhongguor&dbutieyuxian、youxiaoxingyumoshibijiaojinxingshizhengjianyan,yanjiubiaoming: diyi,zhiyoudangjingjikongjianchuyubutieyuxianneishicaixuyaozhengfushishir&dbutiezhengce;dier,dangxuyaozhengfuduiqiyejinxingr&dbutieshi,geidingqitatiaojian,cunzaiyigezuiyouder&dbutieguimo;disan,r&dbutiejixiaohuisuizhujingjitiaojiandebianhuafashengfanzhuan;disi,congr&dbutiemoshidebijiaolaikan,“puhuishi”butieyu“jingzhengshi”butieyougezideyouxiaoquyu;diwu,zhongguoder&dbutiezhengcecongzhengtishangkanduiqiyejishuchuangxinyouxianzhudejilixiaoying,yishuishouyouhuiweidaibiaode“puhuishi”butiedezhengcexiaoguoyaoyouyuyizhijiecaizhengbutieweidaibiaode“jingzhengshi”butie。

       jiyubenwendeyanjiuyufaxian,weiyouxiaoliyongzhengfur&dbutiezhengceduiqiyejishuchuangxindejilixiaoying,chongfenfahuiqiyezaijishuchuangxinguochengzhongdezhutinengdongxing,congerbaozhengguojiachuangxinqudongzhanlvedeyouxiaoshishi,shixianzhongguoyou“jishuzhuigan”dao“jishuyinling”dekuayue,xuyaojinyibuwanshanzhengfuduiqiyeder&dbutietixi,youhuar&dbutiejizhi,womendeyanjiujianyiruxia:

       diyi,youxiaozhenbier&dbutiexianyu,jingzhundingweixuyaor&dbutiededuixiangqiye。shouxianyaoshibiebutongdeshichangshilinglaiyuan,jishuyichuzaochengdechuangxinsirenshouyidiyushehuishouyi,xinxibuduichengzaochengderongziyueshu,chuangxintouzimenjianguogao,yihuoshiguojijishulongduanduizhongguor&dtouzizaochengdeyizhideng。qiciduiyubutongdechanye,huanxuyaojutifenxichanyer&dtouzidejieduantezheng、shichanghuanjing、zhengtir&dshuiping、yijijinrongshichanghuanjingdeng,yicizhenbiegaichanyeshifouxuyaojinxingr&dbutie。zuihouduiyuxuyaobutiedechanye,yaonenggougoujianchuyouxiaodebutiejizhi,jiangr&dbutiezijinluoshidaoyanfaxiaolvyuyiyuanjiaogaodeqiye,bimianchuxiannixiangxuanzeyijipianbudengwenti。

       dier,zhubutigaobutieqiangdu,quedingr&dbutiedeheliguimo。yumeiguo、ouzhouxuduofadaguojiaxiangbi,zhongguoder&dtouziyubutieqiangdudouchuyujiaodishuiping,weilaijiaochangyiduanshiqi,suizhur&dtouzishuipingdekuaisuzengchang,zhengfuduiqiyeder&dbutiezongtiqiangduyexuyaotigao,yur&dtouzishuipingxiangxiediao。danyouyuxiaolv、yusuanyueshudengwentidezhiyue,r&dbutieshuipingyingyucaizhengnengli、chanyetezheng、qiyejishunenglixiangpipei,dadaoyigejiaoshiyideguimojike。

       disan,jianlir&dbutieziwopingguyudiaozhengjizhi,buduantigaor&dbutiexiaolv。r&dbutiedejixiaoyaojishipinggu,duiyujixiaojiaodidelingyuhuoquyuyaonenggouzhaochuqiyuanyin,jinerxiaozheng。r&dbutiexiaolvdedongtaitigaodazhishejisangehuanjiedexiaolvwenti: yishizhixingxiaolv,jibutiejigounenggouyizuididechengbenjiangr&dbutiezijinfafangdaobutieqiye;ershixuanzexiaolv,tongguoyixiliexuanzejizhi,yaonenggoushaixuanchuzuixuyaor&dbutiedeqiye;sanshijianduxiaolv,butiezijinfafangxiaquhou,yaonenggoubaozhengzhexiezijinshiyongyuqiyeder&dhuodong。

       disi,chuangxinr&dbutiemoshi,shixianbutiemoshiyubutieduixiangzhijiandeyouhuapipei。lilunshangde“puhuishi”butieyu“jingzhengshi”butiezaishijianshangbiaoxianweishuishouyouhuihezhijiecaizhengbutie,jianyushuishouyouhuiduiyinglijiaodi、shenzhiwufayinglidezhongxiaoqiyeyuchuchuangqiyedezhengcexiaoguojiaoruo,keyikaolvtigaoqir&dtouzidejiajikouchubili,yanhouqikouchushijian。duiyuzhijiecaizhengbutiezhengce,yaochongfenfahuiqizhijiexinghelinghuoxingdeyoushi,jiyuquyu、chanye、qiye、xiangmudejutitezheng,shejichujuyouzhenduixingdebutiezhengce,zuodaoyindizhiyi,yinshizhiyi。

       diwu,goujianyuwanshanduir&dbutiezhengceyoubuchongyucuihuazuoyongdepeitaocuoshi。weigenghaodifahuir&dbutiezhengcedejilixiaoying,xiangyingdepeitaocuoshiyuzhengcebibukeshao: jiaqiangzhishichanquanbaohu,tigaor&dtouzidesirenshouyi;duiguodujingzhengdexingyeshezhishiyidejinrubilei,jianhuanchuangxinzujindehaosan;jijipeiyangchuangxinr&drencai,youqishishichangjinquedechuangxinrencai,tigaoqiyedechuangxinxiaolv;chuangsher&dfuzhujigou,jiejuejishuxinxi、xuqiuxinxidengdebuduichengwenti,yijir&dchengguodechanyehuadengwenti;yikechuangbanweiyinling,shenhuajinrongshichanggaige,huanjiechuangxinqiyederongziyueshu,zhutuikazhongguobozidehexinjishu、guanjianjishudetupo。

 

yuanwenfabiaoyu《jingjiyanjiu》2021niandi1qi